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What is a semiconductor?

Source: Huake   |   Date:2024-05-30

semiconductor refers to a material whose electrical conductivity at room temperature is between a conductor and an insulator. Semiconductors are widely used in radio, television and temperature measurement.

Diodes, for example, are devices made of semiconductors. A semiconductor is a material whose electrical conductivity can be controlled, ranging from insulator to conductor. Whether from the perspective of technology or economic development, the importance of semiconductors is very huge.

The core units in most of today's electronic products, such as computers, mobile phones or digital recorders, are closely related to semiconductors. Common semiconductor materials are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, etc., and silicon is one of the most influential in commercial applications among various semiconductor materials.


There are many semiconductor materials, which can be divided into two categories according to chemical composition: elemental semiconductor and compound semiconductor.

Germanium and silicon are the most commonly used elemental semiconductors; Compound semiconductors include Group Ⅲ and Ⅴ compounds (gallium arsenide, gallium phosphide, etc.), Group Ⅱ and Ⅵ compounds (cadmium sulfide, zinc sulfide, etc.), oxides (oxides of manganese, chromium, iron, copper), and solid solutions composed of group ⅲ-ⅴ compounds and group ⅱ-ⅵ compounds (gallium aluminum arsenic, gallium arsenic phosphorus, etc.).

In addition to the above crystalline semiconductors, there are amorphous glass semiconductors, organic semiconductors and so on.

The classification of semiconductors, according to its manufacturing technology can be divided into: integrated circuit devices, discrete devices, optoelectronic semiconductors, logic ics, analog ics, storage and other categories, in general, these will be divided into small categories.

In addition, there is a classification by application field, design method, etc., although not commonly used, it is still classified according to IC, LSI, VLSI (super LSI) and their scale. In addition, there are methods that can be divided into analog, digital, analog and digital mixture and function according to the signals processed by it.
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